Resistor

A resistor is an electrical component which relates current through it to voltage across it by the ohm's
law equation: $$ V=I\ast R$$, where V is voltage measured in
Volts, I is the current measured in Amperes, and R is it's resistance measured in Ohms.

Transistor

A transistor is a device which can act as a switch or can amplify signals

Capacitor

A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy by accumulating electric charge across two
surfaces which are insulated from each other

Capacitance

Capacitance is a unit used to quantify the ability of a capacitor to create a potential difference
(measured in Volts) when a charge (measured in Coulombs) is stored across its surfaces. The formula for
capacitance is $$ C=\frac{Q}{V}$$ where Q is electric charge in Coulombs, and V is the voltage across
the surfaces of the capacitor

Ohm's Law for Capacitors

Ohm's Law, the law relating voltage linearly to current with the resistance constant $$ V=IR$$, can be
adapted to relate voltage to current across a capacitor by taking the derivative of the equation for
capacitance, $$ C=\frac{Q}{V}$$ to obtain an equation in terms of current as the rate of charge:
$$ I=C\frac{dV}{dt}$$

$$ VC=Q$$, Take the time derivative of both sides of the equation, $$ \frac{dV}{dt}C=\frac{dQ}{dt}$$,
convert $$ \frac{dQ}{dt}$$ to I for current, as current is defined as the charge flowing through per
second

Inductor

An inductor is a device which stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it

Diode

A diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts currently primarily in one direction