A resistor is an electrical component which relates current through it to voltage across it by the ohm's law equation: \(V = I * R\), where V is voltage measured in Volts, I is the current measured in Amperes, and R is it's resistance measured in Ohms.
A transistor is a device which can act as a switch or can amplify signals
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy
An inductor is a device which stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it
A diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts currently primarily in one direction