Resistor
A resistor is an electrical component which relates current through it to voltage across it by the ohm's law equation: $V=I\ast R$, where V is voltage measured in Volts, I is the current measured in Amperes, and R is it's resistance measured in Ohms.
Transistor
A transistor is a device which can act as a switch or can amplify signals
Capacitor
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy by accumulating electric charge across two surfaces which are insulated from each other
Capacitance
Capacitance is a unit used to quantify the ability of a capacitor to create a potential difference (measured in Volts) when a charge (measured in Coulombs) is stored across its surfaces. The formula for capacitance is $C=\frac{Q}{V}$ where Q is electric charge in Coulombs, and V is the voltage across the surfaces of the capacitor
Ohm's Law for Capacitors
Ohm's Law, the law relating voltage linearly to current with the resistance constant $V=IR$, can be adapted to relate voltage to current across a capacitor by taking the derivative of the equation for capacitance, $C=\frac{Q}{V}$ to obtain an equation in terms of current as the rate of charge: $I=C\frac{dV}{dt}$
$VC=Q$, Take the time derivative of both sides of the equation, $\frac{dV}{dt}C=\frac{dQ}{dt}$, convert $\frac{dQ}{dt}$ to I for current, as current is defined as the charge flowing through per second
Inductor
An inductor is a device which stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it
Diode
A diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts currently primarily in one direction